The Latest From T&D


//  24.04.24  //
A lithium-ion high-voltage battery pack
A lithium-ion high-voltage battery pack

An electric vehicle (EV) battery is typically made up of hundreds, sometimes thousands, of rechargeable lithium-ion cells connected to each other to form the battery pack.

Inside an EV battery 

Lithium atoms produce electrons as they move from one side of a battery to the other, creating an electrical current. Lithium-ion cells are the most popular because of their cost efficiency, offering the most optimal trade-off between energy storage capacity and price. As a rule, a larger number of cells generally means a larger capacity battery, meaning the vehicle – including electric motorcycles – can travel a longer distance. Lithium-ion battery technology has a high energy density and is suited to quick charging patterns, ideal for an electric motorcycle. It also retains energy density over thousands of charge sequences.

Manufacturing of lithium-ion cells
Manufacturing of lithium-ion cells

Electric motorcycles primarily use lithium-ion batteries, thanks to their high-capacity potential and ability to recharge fully with minimal energy loss. The main components of these rechargeable batteries are carbon, a metal oxide, and lithium. Within these batteries are five key technical elements: the anode, cathode, separator, electrolyte, and lithium ions. There is a wide range of batteries on the market that combine different metals, such as manganese or iron, with lithium, but at their core, these are all lithium batteries.

Depending on the usage and performance requirements of an electric motorcycle, different cells with distinct internal material combinations can be selected to form the most suitable battery. For example, Li-ion ternary batteries have a higher energy density and are suitable for areas with relatively low temperatures, while Li-FePO4 batteries have good thermal stability, making them safer in high-temperature environments and so more suitable for tropical areas.

The battery lab at T&D
The battery lab at T&D

At T&D, the specialist battery team designs and manufactures battery packs around carefully selected cells from reputable suppliers. The physical housing of the battery pack, the battery management system (including both hardware and software), and the testing and validation of the battery are all designed and managed in-house. This ensures the battery’s compatibility with the other essential components of the drive system, and stringent tests to international standards assure the safety and performance of the battery.

Internal wiring connections in a battery pack
Internal wiring connections in a battery pack

The battery pack 

Battery cells are connected together either in series or parallel, to form the total positive (B+) and negative (B-) value of the power cells. After monitoring and control by the battery management system (BMS), this becomes the total postive (P+) and negative (P-) value, which outputs power to the drive system.  

Once a battery is plugged in to the system, power from that battery is controlled by the BMS, with the on/off switching of P+ or P- enabling the powering of loads external to the battery, or cutting off the power supply, as required. Of course, most power is directed to an electric motorcycle’s motor, however the electrical system must provide power to other auxiliary circuits such as lighting, signaling, and braking. Depending on the design of a specific motorcycle, one battery might provide power to all items on the electrical system, or additional battery packs might provide power to auxiliary circuits such as an ABS system. 

One of T&D's range of electric motorcycle batteries
One of T&D's range of electric motorcycle batteries

T&D’s electric motorcycle battery technology 

T&D has considered battery development carefully. It is something that sister company, Bafang, has been doing since they started manufacturing electric drive systems for bicycles over 20 years ago, so it’s in our genes. Not many manufacturers begin developing components in a laboratory and further put them to test on a track. T&D do. 

Our reliable, high-capacity batteries are efficient and long-lasting. They are protected by a BMS that details major protection functions (overcharge, overdischarge, overcurrent, overvoltage, overtemperature, short circuit), temperature sensors that alert the operating system, and defensive housing. Ranges of up to 160+ km can be accomplished, and stand-by periods of over six months. With alternative batteries available for a variety of motorcycle selections, from heavyweight and long-range, to lighter bursts of power, we invite you to explore our range


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